2021-04-27 13:27:49


  • Antigen dose is an important determinant of vaccines.
  • A universal flu vaccine needs to induce strong and broad responses. Dose likely impacts both strength and breadth.
  • For influenza, there is currently a high-dose (HD) vaccine approved for those >=65 years of age.
  • HD has been shown to induce higher immunogenicity and protection against vaccine strains.
  • Impact of dose on heterologous responses is uncertain.


  • Long-term: Better understand and optimize dose toward inducing strong and broad immune protection. Use this knowledge as part of the COBRA vaccine development process.
  • Short-term: Detailed analysis of strength and breadth of immune response following vaccination with high-dose (HD) versus standard dose (SD) influenza Fluzone vaccine.


  • Open cohort of individuals who were vaccinated during the 2014/15 - 2018/19 flu seasons.
  • The default vaccine was the trivalent or quadrivalent standard dose (SD, 15µg) Fluzone vaccine.
  • Individuals >=65 were offered the high-dose (HD, 60µg) trivalent Fluzone vaccine.
  • Analysis of immune response (HAI) for SD vs. HD individuals.
  • Focus on individuals >=65 years, only look at B-strains that are in both SD and HD.

Study population

The data

The data